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Common faults of DC motors and how to solve them

DC motors will inevitably have some faults during operation, so how do we need to solve these faults?
1. Can't start: the power supply has no voltage, the excitation circuit is broken, the brush circuit is disconnected, there is power but the motor cannot rotate.
2. The speed is abnormal: the speed is too high and the speed is too low.
3. The brush spark is too large: the brush is not on the neutral line; the brush pressure is improper or the contact with the commutator is poor or the brush is worn or the brush grade is wrong; the surface of the commutator is not smooth or the mica sheet is protruding; the motor Overload or power supply voltage is too high; armature winding or magnetic pole winding or commutation pole winding fault; rotor dynamic balance is not corrected.
4. Overheating or smoking: The motor is overloaded for a long time; the power supply voltage is too high or too low; the armature, magnetic pole, and commutation pole windings are faulty; starting or forward and reverse rotation is too frequent.
5. The frame is live: the insulation resistance of each winding is too low; the outlet end is in contact with the frame; the insulation damage of each winding causes a short circuit to ground.
The above is the main content of the common faults of DC motors and how to solve them.